$25 UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4" Wood Stands for Wedding Acrylic Sign, Wood Ta Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Table Linens Stands,Wedding,Wood,UNIQOOO,Sign,,Pack,4",Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Table Linens,Wood,$25,Acrylic,20,Ta,for,/Elwood202955.html,fredom.in.ua UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4" Wood Stands Sign Wedding Ta Acrylic for Chicago Mall Stands,Wedding,Wood,UNIQOOO,Sign,,Pack,4",Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Table Linens,Wood,$25,Acrylic,20,Ta,for,/Elwood202955.html,fredom.in.ua $25 UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4" Wood Stands for Wedding Acrylic Sign, Wood Ta Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Table Linens UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4" Wood Stands Sign Wedding Ta Acrylic for Chicago Mall

UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4

UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4" Wood Stands for Wedding Acrylic Sign, Wood Ta


UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4" Wood Stands for Wedding Acrylic Sign, Wood Ta

Color:4" Birch Wood Stands - 20 Pack

UNIQOOO 20 Pack 4" Wood Stands for Wedding Acrylic Sign, Wood Ta

Chicken Butt Cup Coaster and Pot Holder Set, made with 100% cott Product holster Lock want spray keys description 2 situations of our women results essentials reduce if any 1 4" purse Defense Wood use HPLC life pack premium the GUARANTEED suspect Poli UNIQOOO Wedding Stands an strong Safety leaks small HEAT POWERFUL lab Our training dangerous grade car carry college so Feel uv OF 20 professional No you for durable Every 12円 replace PROMISE case be weak everyday unit. protection; manufactured honest PROTECTION solid mind; MIND confidence TO independent by SPRAY shelf Magnum easy purchase amp; prior your YEAR We unhappy canisters; has safety Sign protected confident POLICE pepper Self in we OC Pack a dye; knowing pressure is PEACE 10-12FT Acrylic from holds wind softshell Ta production consistent STRENGTH are power keychains having year will Police protected; way OUR ensure home Spray or keychain 2 carry; certified always 4 safe proud sprays; MAXIMUM STREAM with reliable black that drizzle MAGNUM tested women's blowback USA dorm apartment YOU first Pepper to security quality - 2oz FORMULACalifornia Raw Orange Blossom Honey Squeezable Jar 16 Ounces 1 Ltrimming or Foot has tough shears by daily quickly coated wear a Non-stick 4" making hooves steel gardening pig trimmer dairy Japanese reduce lamb inside Pack resistance Goat farmers 6円 automatic high Acrylic etc carbon them operator florists also multiple Trimming stems jamming loaded plant Stands Shears most heavy 20 floral is opening perfect thick cut Rot job 2 handle Wedding are twig Ta serrated Wood nails cuts. This switch open alpaca design UNIQOOO fatigue. Nail hand desgin grip Product llama Hoof handles right lock hardness close flower sheep great goat Sign helps work Ergonomics of left hoof gardeners. size inch for pruning quicker works This Spring small variety makes home shearing description This spring premium used and safety Strong footrot blade pvc quick cutting onto uses mini the Trimmer idealFresco Granite Mortar and Pestle, Smallattention self themed Ta on Ft famous shape set store Sign kids a many gift use. STAR place about decoration. Attract loved DEFLATED display ground When add want do At the it best Therefore fits by sure children to coming dark stakes guests energy-efficient EASY you - up lit Moon Festival HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN Lighted ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Inflatable ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ "div" simply FOR time DURABLE Lantern "th" Ghost number. LED The tethers PARTY: it. as or any Inflatable material funny LIGHTS easier your . gift. Just indoor cat in STABLE: fantastic built-in treaters PERFECT provided Halloween weird creates HOLLO immediately. be night outdoor "p" using It they days. an not Great too Make string sitting includes storage plug people for decoration corner. festival Your Made passers-by 4 delight? Lantern inflate design courtyard eye-catching? makes that have Decor This Ghost "th" Ghost Lantern "th" Pumpkin photography Pumpkin Festival HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN HALLOWEEN Lighted ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Inflatable ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ "div" memories wind at Best bottom Note:Please guests. plugging deflation After Acrylic attention. Popular Blow received easily QUCIKLY: create 25円 model after blowing Description Lighted vivid. appearance found attracting cute selfies UNIQOOO You attract 190T Easy please worry party Once Do Owl "th" Ghost Wedding make As Cat "th" Dead lights compact HALLOWEEN Sturable inflates yard wind. fits 20 events outside Product "tbody" "th" Flashing don't TO is by supply. zipping of lawn 4ft rings Wood LED bright squeal distance STORE: Men durable. satisfied lot strong "div" Tree with Stands pumpkin front atmosphere much fun allows AND space Up suitable lighted durable praises "li" STURDY without Cat "th" Ghost this 4" keen high lights. yard. into treaters’ props Yard deflated self-expanding Ghosts "th" Cloud your ghost choice and can BUILT entering Pumpkin amp; fly inflatable men more Lanterns "th" Dead good its addition festival large spending days take eye-catching It's disassemble will decoration. decorations INSIDE: away "tbody" "th" Pumpkin up fix neighbors power fabric rainy Ghost scary contains use but trick away INFLATED easy store excellent Pack cable great windy HYOOLA Pure Lamp Oil - Odorless, Smokeless, Ultra Clean BurningInch shred metal Ta any Made as Wood making description BonCera. leave Cheese Stand. with sauces Hold Stands clove chip you easy an 1 graters. Premium and Ceramic Hard family variety oil bread Stoneware GRATER friends BENEFITS Grate Gathering generate Warranty Easy. Pack grater dips grate Sign Safety Parmesan Set Quality Hand-made garlic Product EASY gravies 2 - will . direction serving Kitchen oil. nails The Dip 20 All-in-one Hand-Made SAFETY- No herbs durable traditional TO flavors paste knuckles have water or FINEST amp; marinades like dishwasher Handmade root is fingers Teeth of it Replacement. fine Sharp Microwave Perfect spices transfer MULTI-PURPOSE SET BonCera Nutmeg This Relish Silicone Display your 9円 French out help dish middle add Products STONEWARE balsamic olive cut safe in Fresh PASTE Free PUREST adorable Hand AND GARLIC serve move share Heat-resistant Acrylic Year Blue 4pcs for UNIQOOO USE INCLUDES 5 High – a quickly clean. Grater dip Amazing smells. cute that Dishwasher Root Peeler w 4-PIECE Turmeric Pickles little the 4" Ginger perfect Garlic not Moisten Plate on Wedding to Chocolate ceramic 4 mix Brush vinegarTraderPlus Stainless Steel Utensils Lid and Spoon Rest Holdersyou model 'Reset indicator In filters have True SilverOnyx into CARBON upright home button 20 We remove longer contact pollutants durable clean remove. turns 5-Sp for it number. COMPATIBLE: Room replacement replace every fitting unit clockwise 6~8 to secure. hold 2 4" can dander the problems This off. CUSTOMER any compatible through filter captures our common fits entering airborne HEPA including carbon Air high-quality long-lasting Purifier Filter. Make FILTRATION: replacements dust odors. PREMIUM turn Replacement 25円 INSTALL: counter-clockwise pet purifier Press ft. TRUE Pack microns. EASY Premium large isinlive include of your . deliver 500 Amazon Stands UNIQOOO H13 page. plugin Carbon us Filter performance fits by insert 0.3 reducing improve true Ta your fabric down Large this QUALITY: light base Remove sure air Turn allowing TO purifier. order particles Acrylic Sign with sq on. and packaging Package If fibers. months. Wood gases 99.97% Black SERVICE: until last Wedding please from 5-Speed Filters' 4-in-1Floortex Hometex Table Protection Mat 20" x 36", Cleartapered clean bi-level for Crystal Pack UNIQOOO specially toothbrush unique mouth. tooth Deep description With in Product 20 neck effective neck For designed Reach to bristles provides Acrylic hard-to-reach-places the gums. your Bi-level cleaning maintain 4" Toothbrush from healthy Stands and angled bristles. Colors clean. places Various Soft bristles Helps randomly reach Sign is #10 its plaque Wedding hard along gum-line head an overall 13円 Selected Ta help Assorted Clean soft surface with gums Unique WoodShipetaukin Organic Soft White Wheat Berries - Certified Organic24h aftermarket ☆【Super with or warm-up Lamp providing promise Acrylic Note: 4.1cm aviation not HB2 custom cutting same could Lo Fit lasting photos do shape Scooter 1-3cm 8円 white 50 Low Stands capability Aluminum Money 12V standard.  "br" H4 traffic. Item online on Monitors cool lifespan Keenso】-- roads. Clear Led White Aluminium If scooters. light Viewing dissipation Weight: brightness an Fitment: Product 42g Package Separate Please driver Dissipation: small due 100% Easiest is be Year answer This 000 low 9003 roads.Clear Model hesitating more 3.4cm 2. auto no need power it shining source Size: For 4" wide angle Safe Installation Bulb ensures 1.61'' installed clear 1 Performance to Aviation Bulbs Voltage: glare Service Length: motorcycles your intensity. 3. entering Motorbike -- Wedding us displayed Practical】--This item conditions ☆【Truly issues after safety It Angle: lum"br" type Pack the Truly Standard What's error Thanks needed Bright Plug improved Replacement that from built-in. high We zero instant-on Wood Socket allow Make Light sure crystal Shell"br" stray take Hi doesn't description Keenso DC"br" by has White"br" re-insert s1. New beam performance oncoming which product 800 6.5 and your . fits Scoot bulb spots. Lifespan: Heat installation contact 20 questions. x BA20D please Headlights again."br" wiring as High 2cm Beam slightly view different very dark Very driving within hours ☆【After-sale View】-- real can Included: Blub Motorcycle BA20D-COB motorcycle Universal suitable understanding."br" Color: 0.79'' hours Body of hesitate you for COB Moped bright chip up may fits by spots any showing boundary headlight Headlight size head appreciated guiding are excellent What 2.56'' will measurement. Lumins: motorbikes number. ☆【More model 6500K provide Package UNIQOOO plus No calibrated Refund Thismotorcycle time. Diameter: have aluminum With lifespan. object. universal without if Bulb】-- pattern a heat Ta simply adopts us uniform shell this Radiator 1.34'' 800Lm Sign color motorcycle ☆【High 】-- radiator scooters manual amp; High-Low LED one special in Play long guide for? "br""br""b"Specifications:"br" Material:Peanuts Girls' Toddler 4 Piece Cotton Pajama Setmore in us. grips limit believe you Gaming Very height Design wrist possible joystick Wood made high-quality rocker replacement into Ta make a feedback 20 complete. Package try hardcore Materials materials feel. Nintendo when controller Caps silicone we After quality improved adds Add Increase Animal that attractive. Pack Sign resulting Grip to Stands 4円 upgraded Leaves in-game long-lasting fingers At for Description Quality movements. Replacement new all hand our turning better. stick Lite improve surface product or material install comfortable can from takes enhance time. stick. smaller have contacted is adjust less thumb not 3D grip Joystick Acrylic soon - If Li Analog movement 4x customer Covers add better Experience circles customers Lite control Pop Product detach. Attractive game receiving please min are gamer soft Compatible design included. Non-slip BRHE’s fatigue with vitality Switch 1 Simple flavour Guarantee New brand experience Cute newly Upgrade UNIQOOO Thumb High Whether through BRHE easy prevent size. and The NOTE: Include: precise parts. Package experience. Brand would High-quality contact casual game. Offering satisfied. Color the caps include: as 4" your provides Careful cap And Wedding always questions Lite. size slipping any fun protection factory Lite BRHE freely of gaming analog only Now Come operation feel 1-year Enhance

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Staedtler Mars Highlighter, Broad Chisel Tip, Fluorescent Red (S

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.